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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

Alternative fuels: For the first time since diesel-powered cars from Europe started arriving here in the 1950s, old first-person accounts about the joys of driving a diesel fall off to near zero. They are replaced by new first-person accounts about the joys of driving cars with ridiculously high horsepower like the 580-hp Chevrolet Camaro ZL1 and Dodge’s Challenger SRT Hellfire with 707 hp. Elsewhere: fuel-cell cars with their longer cruising range move center-stage, stealing the limelight from battery-powered cars.

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The company's stats also show that pop diva Whitney Houston's death in February attracted more interest than Kate.
QuikTrip:“糖果摊”
Meanwhile, exports are expected to continue falling due to the combination of weak global demand and higher prices, as well as China’s decision to effectively re-peg the renminbi to the strengthening dollar.

马纳尔·阿尔-谢里夫(Manal al-Sharif)
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Ashley Graham, 30, is the first ever curve model to make the highest-paid list, coming in at 10th place after banking $5.5 million from her lingerie and swimsuit lines contracts.

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

中国人保11日早盘再度跌停

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《屈服》原本打算用作片头曲,后来出于种种考虑作为片尾曲。这首歌曲总体来说温柔清新,但是管乐部分却大气磅礴。这是007系列电影主题曲中最出色的曲子之一,但并不是官方主题曲。它甚至比《明日帝国》最终选定的官方主题曲好听得多。
这部电影也是为了纪念2005年电视剧发行十周年而拍摄的。

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

冲击奖项:自从在特莱瑞德电影节首映以来,奥德曼一直就是最佳男主角奖项的宠儿。
7. Political wars guarantee intense volatility through 2014-2016 elections
Despite the overall upward trends in financing, the amount of capital raised by women-owned businesses has historically lagged when compared to men. For example, in the first half of 2013, women made up only 16 percent of businesses seeking funding, with only 24 percent of the women receiving angel funding, Plum Alley, an online e-commerce platform for female entrepreneurs, recently launched a crowdfunding platform specifically focused on helping women innovators get to the next level. And as the first platform of its kind in the exploding crowdfunding space (expected to hit $3.98 billion next year), we can certainly expect Plum Alley to play a big role in the entrepreneurial landscape for women in the year to come.

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
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  • 首先,正如咨询与培训机构RedPrairie公司的供应链专家汤姆?科赞斯基所言,一提到物流行业,多数人都觉得它“没有吸引力”,是一项乏味且薪水不高的仓储工作。
  • 集资建职工房成为烂尾 三亿购房款却不知去向
  • 集租房建设将盘活农村资产
  • 亚太地区票房增长了13%,是推动国际票房增长的主力,而中国贡献了整个亚太地区近半票房。
    8. Pour-Protection by Pet Life

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 国家统计局:2019年4月CPI同比上涨2.5% 居住价格同比上涨2.0%, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

Click to zoom

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

朝阳法院本月网上拍卖87套房和38辆车 房产评估总价值达7.4亿元

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

京千余经适房家庭查出购房记录 243户已取消资格

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

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    “治理空气,现在办法是有的,关键是看下多大决心。”
  • 要向依法依规的市场主体发出“前行、前行、再前行”的信号;向依靠劳动创业创新者亮起“可以、可以、再可以”的绿灯;对那些违法违规不良行为,就要及时亮出黄牌,甚至出红牌罚他下场。
    2016年空前的海外收购潮消耗了中国大量外汇储备,随后监管部门开始严格限制境外交易。今年8月,中国政府出台了新框架,鼓励那些符合北京战略重点的交易,并限制涉及娱乐、体育和豪宅等方面的交易。
    国内生产总值增长6.5%左右,在实际工作中争取更好结果;
    Pop superstar Gaga also took home the award for best actress in a limited television series or movie for her role as the villainous Countess in American Horror Story: Hotel. The Born This Way singer made an emotional speech as she was awarded a Golden Globe for her role in the HBO hit.
    Metals cases made up a record 46 per cent of the 233 anti-dumping actions brought worldwide in 2015, with the steel industry accounting for almost all of the metals complaints.

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 京交会升格背后:去年服务贸易额创历史新高
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 并购重组活跃 中小房企密集转手

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

在星期六晚上他们再次献唱《悲惨世界》原声《Stars》。
第二步 重复标志性动作
该书反映了部分群体越来越担忧自动化可能对就业——从制造业到专业服务领域的就业——产生的负面影响。该书英国版的副标题警告了“大规模失业的威胁”,美国版的副标题则预言了“一个失业的未来”。
Having earned a living for the last four years while her contemporaries go to school every day, she has been forced to mature quickly.
nutrition
据雅虎的统计,新闻取代了名人成为2010年的最热门搜索项,搜索量最大的两个新闻热点是英国石油公司的墨西哥湾漏油事件和南非世界杯足球赛。
"Students are not suited for starting businesses on their own," said Zhang, adding that vocational students are more eager to start businesses than university undergraduates.

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

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  • 停车位缺口超5000万个 发改委回应有车位才能买车
  • “This is not an excuse — this is the reality of the environment we operate in, ” Dervin said. Since 2012, JetBlue has been implementing a series of technology efforts to help it recover more quickly from bad weather. She said other tools are coming online that will help the airline keep to its schedules.
    问:你今年夏天去了美国,感觉怎样?
  • 未来楼市政策料重在刺激需求 调控将走向市场化
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • 荷兰危机牵涉到成熟的金融专业人士,那些惯于分析金融和经济趋势的人们。但是,他们过于看重个人经验。
    商务部本月早些时候表示,消费品的零售销售是去年消费的一项关键指标。该销售额同比增长了10.7%,占去年全国66.4%的GDP增长。
  • Ultimately I expect these new leaders to start selecting from a broader pool of candidates and appoint direct reports from more varied backgrounds, defying those who use current imbalances to extrapolate gloomily that leadership parity between men and women is still decades off.
    There were more than 8m Chinese tourist arrivals in the country last year — up 36 per cent year-on-year, said Mr Wang. The numbers had continued to increase even after Seoul announced the deployment of Thaad, he added.
  • The ranking measures the quality and breadth of the schools’ postgraduate programmes. Schools must take part in all four rankings to be eligible for a full score. LBS rose from third last year by participating in all four rankings for the first time.
    电商巨头阿里巴巴集团创始人、董事局主席马云连续第三年成为我国"IT首富"。
  • 星巴克首席执行官霍华德舒尔茨
    反对:在颁奖季前一年早早上映可能不利于其冲奖。
    伦敦商学院的学员品质优秀,这让该商学院尤其具有价值。一位2011届的MBA学员表示:“跻身于如此人才济济的学习环境让我坚信,我可以独立做成某些事情。”
  • “我们从斯雷布雷尼察大屠杀事件了解了荷兰和荷兰人是什么样的,”埃尔多安说起现代荷兰历史上最可耻的一幕,“我们从他们屠杀那里的8000名波斯尼亚人就知道,他们品德败坏到何等地步。”
    The film critics of The New York Times — Manohla Dargis and A. O. Scott — share their picks for the best movies of the year.
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 深圳推出稳租金商品房试点项目 年租金涨幅不超过5% shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

雄安新区居民高价抛售房产 中介被警方带走

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

机构:住宅投资回报率显著下滑 商业地产仍可期

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

天津精装房大势所趋 个性化定制引领市场

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

商品房销售量价齐升 去库存取得初步成效

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • Give Me Space
  • expansion
  • 2016年智能家居销量或翻番

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • 《泰晤士高等教育》专刊的编辑菲尔·巴蒂说道:“中国采取了强有力的政策,且背后又有雄厚的资金支持,才能打造这些世界一流的大学。2015年,中国就宣布将实施‘卓越计划',计划在2020年之前打造六所可以跻身世界一流行列的高校。”
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • 本周一,研究小组表示,根据遗骨可以看出,理查三世患有严重的脊柱侧弯,或者说脊柱弯曲。这会让他十分痛苦,还会导致右肩比左肩高,但莎士比亚的《理查三世》中描述的枯萎的手臂却无从证实。
    per全部+spect看+ive→全部看到→看法;眼界;透视
    11月24日至25日,苏富比举办慕尼黑第四代交易商康拉德·伯恩海默(Konrad Bernheimer)的藏品拍卖会,他拥有历史悠久的伦敦科尔纳吉画廊(Colnaghi)。65岁的伯恩海默决定缩小自己的业务,关闭慕尼黑的画廊,卖掉巴伐利亚的豪华宅邸马尔库斯泰恩城堡(Marquartstein Castle),将科尔纳吉画廊与伦敦的Coll & Cortes画廊合并。
  • 你觉得《乐高蝙蝠侠大电影》是一部儿童片吗?那你就大错特错了。这部影片充满了冷幽默和好笑的段子,欢乐中带着机智。总的来说,如果你喜欢《发展受阻》里的威尔?阿奈特,那你也会喜欢这部电影。

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • 截止发稿时为止,在中国社交媒体上仍然能够找到一些被泄露的照片和视频。
  • 环保风暴常态化 LED照明企业怎么办?
  • This one didn't come easy, though. Toronto fought back from an 18-point deficit and trailed by one late in the game with the ball. But guard Kyle Lowry was called for an offensive foul, and Curry hit two free throws to help seal the win.

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 我爱我家门店转租公租房被立案调查 转租价高达每月4900元
  • Household substance abuse
  • 52家上市房企业绩分化明显 多家上调业绩预告
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

黑色系暴涨逼近年内高点 引领建材“银十”行情

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 统计局回应房价上涨:目前全国房价总体平稳
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 南宁良庆区建设科技人才公寓
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

In addition, the last quarter of 2016 marked the first time that Huawei achieved a double-digit global market share.

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

That pushed the state share of total investment for the year to date down marginally to 36.6 per cent, still the largest share since 2011 and reflecting the outsize role of government spending in sustaining economic growth during 2016.
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阿丽莎也微笑地说道:“无可挑剔,一直唱下去,男孩们!”
Beck “Say Goodbye” (Capitol)
两队将于10月5日抵达深圳并将在深圳大运中心进行比赛。
此外,规模以上工业增加值的同比增长,是在同期出口下滑7.3%的背景下取得的。
乔布斯在苹果博览会上手持iPhone ,2007年,1月9日,旧金山
China's mass entrepreneurship and innovation initiative has a strong vitality.
“这是我们租户运动生死攸关的时刻,”大都会住宅委员会(Metropolitan Council on Housing)的项目总监伊拉娜·迈尔(Ilana Maier)说,“如果我们现在不能大举强化规定,那么这些政策在十年内都发挥不了作用。”
中国与世界其他地区的贸易10月同比大幅下滑,原材料进口受到尤其沉重的打击,中国投资放缓削弱了这个全球最大商品贸易国的需求。

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

“税+费”双喜临门 降低社保费率红利初显

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • 失宠行业
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • 中国财富榜每年的变化反映了中国资本的流动,显示了这个国家超级富豪的金融实力。
  • 政策暖风频吹为去库存 不等于鼓励楼市再生虚火
  • But a friend saw a TV report about it and contacted the sorting office. Mr Siddeeq, 74, says he is still eager to read it, despite now being divorced。
  • 雷军发力进军家居行业 打造定制家具品牌
  • 办事处副局长卢华东说:“自治区已投资40亿元人民币(约合6亿美元),用于推动贫困地区特色的产业,去年重新安置了77000名贫困人口。”

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 频繁更换品牌 木门经销商真的能“换”来新出路吗?
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • 谷歌英国的搜索结果分为热门趋势搜索榜和搜索次数排行榜。
  • Mr Ford, founder of a Silicon Valley software development company, suggests “a fundamental restructuring of our economic rules” may be needed to mitigate the impact of the advance of robotics and automation. He proposes a guaranteed minimum basic income — or “citizen’s dividend” — as one radical remedy.

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

部分股市资金转战京沪楼市 楼市成股市收割机

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